## Symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

Mnemonic | Output | Code | Output | Description |
---|---|---|---|---|

Latin Extended-B |
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ƒ | = ƒ | ƒ | = ƒ | latin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech |

Greek |
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Α | = Α | Α | = Α | greek capital letter alpha, U+0391 |

Β | = Β | Β | = Β | greek capital letter beta, U+0392 |

Γ | = Γ | Γ | = Γ | greek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3 |

Δ | = Δ | Δ | = Δ | greek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3 |

Ε | = Ε | Ε | = Ε | greek capital letter epsilon, U+0395 |

Ζ | = Ζ | Ζ | = Ζ | greek capital letter zeta, U+0396 |

Η | = Η | Η | = Η | greek capital letter eta, U+0397 |

Θ | = Θ | Θ | = Θ | greek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3 |

Ι | = Ι | Ι | = Ι | greek capital letter iota, U+0399 |

Κ | = Κ | Κ | = Κ | greek capital letter kappa, U+039A |

Λ | = Λ | Λ | = Λ | greek capital letter lambda, U+039B ISOgrk3 |

Μ | = Μ | Μ | = Μ | greek capital letter mu, U+039C |

Ν | = Ν | Ν | = Ν | greek capital letter nu, U+039D |

Ξ | = Ξ | Ξ | = Ξ | greek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3 |

Ο | = Ο | Ο | = Ο | greek capital letter omicron, U+039F |

Π | = Π | Π | = Π | greek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3 |

Ρ | = Ρ | Ρ | = Ρ | greek capital letter rho, U+03A1 |

there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either |
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Σ | = Σ | Σ | = Σ | greek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3 |

Τ | = Τ | Τ | = Τ | greek capital letter tau, U+03A4 |

Υ | = Υ | Υ | = Υ | greek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3 |

Φ | = Φ | Φ | = Φ | greek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3 |

Χ | = Χ | Χ | = Χ | greek capital letter chi, U+03A7 |

Ψ | = Ψ | Ψ | = Ψ | greek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3 |

Ω | = Ω | Ω | = Ω | greek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3 |

α | = α | α | = α | greek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3 |

β | = β | β | = β | greek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3 |

γ | = γ | γ | = γ | greek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3 |

δ | = δ | δ | = δ | greek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3 |

ε | = ε | ε | = ε | greek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3 |

ζ | = ζ | ζ | = ζ | greek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3 |

η | = η | η | = η | greek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3 |

θ | = θ | θ | = θ | greek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3 |

ι | = ι | ι | = ι | greek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3 |

κ | = κ | κ | = κ | greek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3 |

λ | = λ | λ | = λ | greek small letter lambda, U+03BB ISOgrk3 |

μ | = μ | μ | = μ | greek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3 |

ν | = ν | ν | = ν | greek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3 |

ξ | = ξ | ξ | = ξ | greek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3 |

ο | = ο | ο | = ο | greek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW |

π | = π | π | = π | greek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3 |

ρ | = ρ | ρ | = ρ | greek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3 |

ς | = ς | ς | = ς | greek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3 |

σ | = σ | σ | = σ | greek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3 |

τ | = τ | τ | = τ | greek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3 |

υ | = υ | υ | = υ | greek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3 |

φ | = φ | φ | = φ | greek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3 |

χ | = χ | χ | = χ | greek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3 |

ψ | = ψ | ψ | = ψ | greek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3 |

ω | = ω | ω | = ω | greek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3 |

ϑ | = ϑ | ϑ | = ϑ | greek small letter theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW |

ϒ | = ϒ | ϒ | = ϒ | greek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW |

ϖ | = ϖ | ϖ | = ϖ | greek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3 |

General Punctuation |
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• | = • | • | = • | bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub |

bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator, U+2219 |
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… | = … | … | = … | horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub |

′ | = ′ | ′ | = ′ | prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech |

″ | = ″ | ″ | = ″ | double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech |

‾ | = ‾ | ‾ | = ‾ | overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW |

⁄ | = ⁄ | ⁄ | = ⁄ | fraction slash, U+2044 NEW |

Letterlike Symbols |
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℘ | = ℘ | ℘ | = ℘ | script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso |

ℑ | = ℑ | ℑ | = ℑ | blackletter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso |

ℜ | = ℜ | ℜ | = ℜ | blackletter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso |

™ | = ™ | ™ | = ™ | trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum |

ℵ | = ℵ | ℵ | = ℵ | alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW |

alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters |
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Arrows |
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← | = ← | ← | = ← | leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum |

→ | = → | → | = → | rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum |

↓ | = ↓ | ↓ | = ↓ | downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum |

↔ | = ↔ | ↔ | = ↔ | left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa |

↵ | = ↵ | ↵ | = ↵ | downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW |

⇐ | = ⇐ | ⇐ | = ⇐ | leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech |

Unicode does not say that lArr is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So ? lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests |
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⇑ | = ⇑ | ⇑ | = ⇑ | upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa |

⇒ | = ⇒ | ⇒ | = ⇒ | rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech |

Unicode does not say this is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function so ? rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests |
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⇓ | = ⇓ | ⇓ | = ⇓ | downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa |

⇔ | = ⇔ | ⇔ | = ⇔ | left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa |

Mathematical Operators |
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∀ | = ∀ | ∀ | = ∀ | for all, U+2200 ISOtech |

∂ | = ∂ | ∂ | = ∂ | partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech |

∃ | = ∃ | ∃ | = ∃ | there exists, U+2203 ISOtech |

∅ | = ∅ | ∅ | = ∅ | empty set = null set = diameter, U+2205 ISOamso |

∇ | = ∇ | ∇ | = ∇ | nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech |

∈ | = ∈ | ∈ | = ∈ | element of, U+2208 ISOtech |

∉ | = ∉ | ∉ | = ∉ | not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech |

∋ | = ∋ | ∋ | = ∋ | contains as member, U+220B ISOtech |

should there be a more memorable name than 'ni'? |
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∏ | = ∏ | ∏ | = ∏ | n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb |

prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 'greek capital letter pi' though the same glyph might be used for both |
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∑ | = ∑ | ∑ | = ∑ | n-ary sumation, U+2211 ISOamsb |

sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 'greek capital letter sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both |
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− | = − | − | = − | minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech |

∗ | = ∗ | ∗ | = ∗ | asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech |

√ | = √ | √ | = √ | square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech |

∝ | = ∝ | ∝ | = ∝ | proportional to, U+221D ISOtech |

∞ | = ∞ | ∞ | = ∞ | infinity, U+221E ISOtech |

∠ | = ∠ | ∠ | = ∠ | angle, U+2220 ISOamso |

∧ | = ∧ | ∧ | = ∧ | logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech |

∨ | = ∨ | ∨ | = ∨ | logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech |

∩ | = ∩ | ∩ | = ∩ | intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech |

∪ | = ∪ | ∪ | = ∪ | union = cup, U+222A ISOtech |

∫ | = ∫ | ∫ | = ∫ | integral, U+222B ISOtech |

∴ | = ∴ | ∴ | = ∴ | therefore, U+2234 ISOtech |

∼ | = ∼ | ∼ | = ∼ | tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech |

tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both |
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≅ | = ≅ | ≅ | = ≅ | approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech |

≈ | = ≈ | ≈ | = ≈ | almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr |

≠ | = ≠ | ≠ | = ≠ | not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech |

≡ | = ≡ | ≡ | = ≡ | identical to, U+2261 ISOtech |

≤ | = ≤ | ≤ | = ≤ | less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech |

≥ | = ≥ | ≥ | = ≥ | greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech |

⊂ | = ⊂ | ⊂ | = ⊂ | subset of, U+2282 ISOtech |

⊃ | = ⊃ | ⊃ | = ⊃ | superset of, U+2283 ISOtech |

⊄ | = ⊄ | ⊄ | = ⊄ | not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn |

⊆ | = ⊆ | ⊆ | = ⊆ | subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech |

⊇ | = ⊇ | ⊇ | = ⊇ | superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech |

⊕ | = ⊕ | ⊕ | = ⊕ | circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb |

⊗ | = ⊗ | ⊗ | = ⊗ | circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb |

⊥ | = ⊥ | ⊥ | = ⊥ | up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech |

⋅ | = ⋅ | ⋅ | = ⋅ | dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb |

dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot |
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Miscellaneous Technical |
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⌈ | = ⌈ | ⌈ | = ⌈ | left ceiling = apl upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc |

⌉ | = ⌉ | ⌉ | = ⌉ | right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc |

⌊ | = ⌊ | ⌊ | = ⌊ | left floor = apl downstile, U+230A ISOamsc |

⌋ | = ⌋ | ⌋ | = ⌋ | right floor, U+230B ISOamsc |

⟨ | = ⟨ | 〈 | = 〈 | left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech |

lang is NOT the same character as U+003C 'less than' or U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark' |
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⟩ | = ⟩ | 〉 | = 〉 | right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech |

rang is NOT the same character as U+003E 'greater than' or U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark' |
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Geometric Shapes |
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◊ | = ◊ | ◊ | = ◊ | lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub |

Miscellaneous Symbols |
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♠ | = ♠ | ♠ | = ♠ | black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub |

black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow |
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♣ | = ♣ | ♣ | = ♣ | black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub |

♥ | = ♥ | ♥ | = ♥ | black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub |

♦ | = ♦ | ♦ | = ♦ | black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub |

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