The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - Request
HTTP - Client Side
Let us consider the client side of this protocol. An HTTP/1.1 request message consists of three parts:
- Request line
- Message body
HTTP - Client Side: Request Line
The request line identifies the resource, along with the desired action (also called a “request”, “verb” or “method”) that should be applied to it.
The resource is typically identified by a Universal Resource Identifier (URI).
Note: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a specific type of URI.
There are nine request types that can be specified.
HTTP - Client Side: Request Line, Methods
- HEAD - the response the resource would supply to a GET request, but without the response body.
- GET – return a representation of the resource.
- POST – submit data (e.g., from an HTML form) to the resource, where the data is supplied in the body of the request, and the result may be the creation of a new resource, or the update of an existing one.
- PUT – submit a representation of the resource.
- DELETE – delete the resource.
- TRACE – Echoes back the received requested (the client can use this to see if any changes were made by intermediate servers).
- OPTIONS – returns the HTTP methods that the server supports for the specified resource.
- CONNECT – converts the request connection to a transparent TCP/IP tunnel (usually to facilitate SSL through HTTPS).
- PATCH – apply partial modifications to a resource.
HEAD, GET, OPTIONS and TRACE are refered to as safe methods.
Safe methods should not produce side effects on the server. I.e., these methods are only intended for information retrieval, and should not change the state of the server.
Note: If a GET method is implemented in a safe way, then a browser can make arbitrary GET requests without worrying about the state of the web application. Furthermore, they can be cached.
In contrast, because the POST, PUT, and DELETE methods may cause side effects on the server, they are not considered safe methods.
Furthermore, the PUT and DELETE methods should be idempotent, which means that multiple identical requests should have the same effect as a single request.
Note that the safe methods, since they don’t change the state of the server, are also idempotent.
HTTP - Client Side: Headers
The HTTP message header is the primary part of an HTTP request. It contains the operating parameters of an HTTP request.
Header fields start with the field name, followed by a colon, and then the field value. E.g., the Accept field specifies the content types that are acceptable to the client.
Accept: text/plainThe Accept-Language header specifies the languages that are acceptable to the client.
Field names and values may be any application-specific strings, but a core set of fields is standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
An HTTP message header must be separated from the message body by a blank line.
HTTP - Client Side: Message Body
The message body in HTTP request is optional.
In an HTTP request, the message body typically includes user-entered data or files that are being uploaded to the server. It defines various characteristics of the data that is being requested. It may contain a number of fields.
If an HTTP request includes a body, there are usually header lines in the message that describe the body.
- Content-Type: specifies the MIME-type of the data in the message body, such as text/html or image/gif.
- Content-Length: specifies the number of bytes in the message body.
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