As we saw before, the -l option causes ls to display its results in long format. This format contains a great deal of useful information. Here is an example directory from Ubuntu system:

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3576296 2007-04-03 11:05 Experience ubuntu.ogg
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1186219 2007-04-03 11:05 kubuntu-leaflet.png

Below table explain the different fields:

FieldMeaning
-rw-r--r--Access rights to the file. The first character indicates the type of file. Among the different types, a leading dash means a regular file, while a ā€œdā€ indicates a directory. The next three characters are the access rights for the file's owner, the next three are for members of the file's group, and the final three are for everyone else. The full meaning of this is discussed in Permissions.
1File's number of hard links.
rootThe username of the file's owner.
rootThe name of the group which owns the file.
3576296Size of the file in bytes.
2007-04-03 11:05Date and time of the file's last modification.
Experience ubuntu.oggName of the file.